Data manipulation, also known as data wrangling, refers to the process of transforming and cleaning raw data into a structured format suitable for analysis. This process involves various operations such as filtering, sorting, aggregating, merging, reshaping, and transforming data to make it more organized, understandable, and ready for analysis. R provides several functions to perform these tasks, but dplyr is one of the most popular and widely used R packages for data manipulation.

  1. Base R

    Data manipulation in base R involves using the core functions and methods provided by R's base package for handling, transforming, and manipulating data structures such as vectors, matrices, arrays, data frames, and lists.
  2. dplyr

    dplyr is an R package designed for efficient and user-friendly data manipulation. It provides a set of functions that streamline data wrangling tasks by offering a consistent grammar for manipulating data frames and data tables.